The EU will likely base the position that the UK`s “red lines” (end of free movement of persons, lack of jurisdiction for the European Court of Justice, lack of substantial financial commitments, regulatory autonomy and independent trade policy) will provide trade-offs on market access. The EU will argue (as in the past) that the UK should not be allowed to “preserve” the benefits of EU membership without meeting the obligations of membership, as this would compromise the integrity of the EU internal market and customs union. The EU will also argue that, given the UK`s size and geographical proximity to the EU, any free trade agreement should provide for strict competitive conditions on issues such as state aid, competition and social and environmental legislation. The procedure for ratifying the VA by the EU is defined in Article 50 of the Treaty on european Union. It is a two-step process. The European Parliament must approve the agreement. The Council of the EU must then definitively approve the agreement by a qualified majority. The Council of the EU is made up of representatives of ministers from each member state. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons voted with 230 votes against the Brexit withdrawal agreement the largest vote against the British government in history.  The government may survived a vote of confidence the next day.  On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted 149 votes against the agreement, the fourth-biggest defeat of the government in the history of the House of Commons.  A third vote on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, widely expected on 19 March 2019, was rejected by the House of Commons spokesman on 18 March 2019, on the basis of a parliamentary convention of 2 April 1604, which prevented British governments from forcing the House of Commons to vote several times on a subject already voted on by the House of Commons.    An abbreviated version of the withdrawal agreement, in which the annex political statement had been withdrawn, consisted of the test of “substantial amendments,” so that a third vote was held on 29 March 2019, but was rejected by 58 votes.
 On 22 October 2019, the House of Commons agreed, by 329 votes to 299, to give a second reading to the revised withdrawal agreement (negotiated by Boris Johnson earlier this month), but when the accelerated timetable it had proposed did not receive the necessary parliamentary support, Johnson announced that the legislation would be paused.   Due to delays in the UK`s withdrawal from the EU, there will be only 11 months left between the day of withdrawal and the end of the transitional period, unless both sides agree to an extension before 1 July, which would result in a significant change in UK government policy within a relatively short period of time. Discussions are ongoing on the likely duration of the negotiations. Some argue that the fact that the UK and the EU are based on a regulatory alignment position means that an agreement can be negotiated quickly. Others believe that if an agreement on the Norwegian model could be negotiated quickly enough on a top-down basis, the UK`s desire to deviate from EU rules will require a long and complex “bottom-up” approach to the negotiations.